- passive acceptance (“I don’t see much point in questioning the general expectation that men should be masculine and women should be feminine”)
- revelation (“Gradually, I am beginning to see just how sexist society really is”)
- embeddedness–emanation (“I am very interested in women writers”)
- synthesis (“I feel like I have blended my female attributes with my unique personal qualities”)
- active commitment (“I am very committed to a cause that I believe contributes to a more fair and just world for all people”).
Liss et al (2001) published the shocking revelations that "not having conservative beliefs" and "having a positive evaluation of feminists" predicted identification as a feminist for women. Nancy Downing Hansen's 2002 review discusses 16 years of research into the measurement of feminist identity. Ramsey et al (2007) found that regardless of their own feminist identity, women thought that other women thought negatively of feminism and feminists.
I didn't identify as a feminist when I was a woman, probably just to be contrary. How frustrating it is to discover that I was in the majority. Ramsey's article makes me wonder if I was specifically trying to avoid some stigma I held on feminism. One piece of research I expected to see but didn't was whether there was any difference in feminist identification by social class. Yoder's assertion that positive outcomes are related to feminist identity makes me wonder whether the people who end up identifying as feminists are starting off from a more advantaged position in the first place.